Summer Camp for Boys – Are They a Good Idea?

If you do a small research, you will see that there are many parents committed to sending their children to summer camps, because of the long list of benefits. However, if you have been to a summer camp before, you know how great this experience is. And you want the same thing for your kind. But, if you have not, here are some important considerations that may help you make up your mind.

A few advantages of sending your kid to a summer camp:

The psychologists say that sending your boy to a summer camp includes almost an endless list of benefits. First of all, if your boy is rather shy and he public speaking quite difficult, a summer camp will definitely improve his communication skills. There are many activities which are based on non-formal educational methods and their purpose is to help your boy learn how to speak his mind.

Secondly, these activities can also help children to make friends. If you send your boy to a summer camp, he will enjoy spending his time with other kids who have the same hobbies as him. This will also make him become a more confident person who is able to speak for himself. You may consider the whole experience as a way of investing in memories.

Thirdly, your boy will spend his days being physically active. If you are one of those parents who always complain about the fact that your kid spends too much time in front of TV, mostly sitting down, these Canadian boys summer camps will be the perfect choice for you. Your boy will do a lot of sports activities every day, without hurting himself. Swimming and hiking are just a few examples of sports which are usually practised in summer camps. What is more, there are even camp programs which encourage kids to put away their smart devices and spend their time playing outside.

Last but not least, your kid can learn a lot of things about nature. For example, does he know how to light a fire? Or is he able to distinguish the healthy forest fruit from those which are poisonous? If the answer is no, it is the perfect time to learn these things. Maybe, who knows, one day, they will prove useful!

A few things to bear in mind when you choose the summer camp for your boy:

– Try to find out if there is any information about the camp on the Internet. There are many camp managers who choose to post information online because they consider it an easy way to communicate with parents.

– Check the experience. For example, there are some Canadian summer camps for boys which were founded in 1920 and since then their principal mission has been to help children enjoy both fun and educational activities.

– Ask your kid is he likes the location. Usually, kids do not mind these things, but, in order to make sure, it is better to ask him first. Also, if your kid is not so delighted to go, maybe the location will make him change his opinion.

– Decide if the type of food which is served there is the right choice for your boy. In case he is allergic to some types of food, such as peanuts, you should inform the organisers.

What can you do when your boy is in a summer camp?

There are many parents who claim that they feel alone when their boy is not at home. The psychologists say that you should take advantage of this time and enjoy yourself. For example, you can visit your friends. Being a parent is a full-time job which usually does not allow you to have time for yourself.

Also, you can make time and go to a spa. You can relax while you enjoy that amazing massage that we know for sure that you like it. But this is not all. You can also make time for cleaning the house or maybe for renovation. But, if you decide to change something in your boy’s room, you should make sure that he agrees. Kids are usually emotionally attached to their room because it is like their small Universe.

Another great tip is to go somewhere by yourself. In case you hate to travel alone, you can ask your wife/ husband or a good friend to join you. You deserve a vacation too!

A Distant Warm Neptune’s Surprising Atmosphere

The weird, wonderful worlds that exist in the distant families of stars beyond our Sun, have presented more than a few bewitching, bewildering, and bothersome surprises for planet-hunting astronomers to solve. While the discovery of new exoplanets occurs on an almost daily basis today, it was only a generation ago that the very first confirmed batch of remote planets in orbit around an alien star were first detected–and they were a bizarre bunch, circling a city-sized, dense little stellar corpse called a pulsar. A pulsar is a newborn neutron star–the lingering relic of a massive star that has perished in the fiery fury of a supernova explosion–leaving behind this dense little tattle-tale testimony of its former stellar existence. In May 2017, a team of astronomers announced their discovery of yet another strange world belonging to the family of a faraway star. This study, combining observations from NASA’s Hubble (HST) and Spitzer space telescopes, reveals that a distant exoplanet dubbed HAT-P-26b possesses a primitive atmosphere made up almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Located far, far away, about 437 light-years from Earth, Hat-P-26b circles a star approximately twice as old as our own 4.6 billion year old Sun.

This analysis is one of the most detailed studies to date of a warm Neptune–which is a planet that is approximately the same size as or own Solar System’s Neptune, but hugs its own roiling parent-star much more closely than Neptune does our Sun. In dramatic contrast, our own Solar System’s Neptune is the most distant of the eight major planets from our Star, and it is a frigid, but nonetheless beautiful, blue banded gaseous world–an ice giant alien planet dwelling in the frozen perpetual twilight of our Solar System’s outer limits. Here, in this dusky, dimly-lit region, our own Sun hangs suspended in the sky, appearing to be only an especially large star floating in a dark sea along with countless others of its own stellar kind.

The quartet of giant gaseous planets inhabiting the outer regions of our Solar System–Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune–twirl around our Sun in this distant murky realm. Jupiter and Saturn are enormous balls of gas, perhaps containing only very small solid cores hidden beneath heavy and extremely thick atmospheres–although some planetary scientists have proposed that the enormous, majestic duo of gas-giant planets contain no solid surfaces at all. Uranus and Neptune are ice-giant planets that do contain large icy-rocky cores, and comparatively thin gaseous atmospheres compared to the duo of enormous gas-giants. Uranus and Neptune are giant planets, but they are not nearly as enormous as Jupiter and Saturn. Of the quartet of giants, Neptune is the smallest.

It is almost certain that the duo of ice-giants inhabiting our Solar System were not born where we see them today. Uranus is 19 Astronomical Units (AU) from our Sun, while distant Neptune is about 30 AUs away from the light and warmth of our Star. One AU is equivalent to the mean distance between our Earth and the Sun, which is about 93,000,000 miles. The accretionary processes that formed full-sized planets in our young Solar System functioned much more slowly farther from our Sun, where Uranus and Neptune are now situated. The protoplanetary accretion disk made up of gas, ice, and dust was too thin in this distant region to enable planets of this gigantic size to form as rapidly as they would in warmer, denser regions of the disk closer to our Star.

The astronomers who made the recent observations of HAT-P-26bs atmosphere found that it is relatively clear of clouds, and also displays a strong water signature. However, this alien planet is not a water world. The observations of HAT-P-26b’s atmosphere represents the best measurement of water to date on an exoplanet of this size.

The detection of an atmosphere, with this particular composition on an exoplanet, has important implications for the way scientists explain the birth and evolution of planetary systems. In contrast to the duo of ice giant worlds in our own Solar System, HAT-P-26b is thought to have been born either closer to its parent star or later in the development of its planetary system–or both.

“Astronomers have just begun to investigate the atmospheres of these distant Neptune-mass planets, and almost right away, we found an example that goes against the trend in our Solar System. This kind of unexpected result is why I really love exploring the atmospheres of alien planets,” commented Dr. Hannah Wakeford in a May 12, 2017 NASA Press Release. Dr. Wakeford is a postdoctoral researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and lead author of the study published in the May 12, 2017 issue of the journal Science.

A Brief History Of The Hunt

As of May 1, 2017, 3,608 confirmed exoplanets are listed in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. This treasure trove of distant worlds now includes a few alien planets that were actually discovered in the late 1980s, but were only first confirmed more recently. The first published discovery of an exoplanet to receive subsequent confirmation was made in 1988 by the Canadian astronomers Dr. Bruce Campbell, Dr. G.A.H. Walker, and Dr. Stephenson Yang of the University of Victoria and the University of British Columbia. Even though the three Canadian astronomers were cautious about claiming an exoplanet detection, their radial-velocity observations indicated that a distant planet orbits the star Gamma Cephei.

On January 9, 1992, radio astronomers Dr. Aleksander Wolszczan and Dr. Dale Frail announced the discovery of two of the strange worlds in orbit around the pulsar PSR 1257+12. This discovery was confirmed, and it is usually considered to be the first definite detection of exoplanets. Additional observations confirmed a third pulsar planet in 1994. These pulsar planets are believed to have been born from the bizarre remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation–or, alternatively, to be the lingering, remaining rocky cores of doomed gas giants disrupted by the supernova blast. The lingering rocky cores of these ill-fated giants eventually decayed into their current orbits, where they now reside, bathed in deadly showers of radiation flowing out from all that is left of their parent-star.

On October 6, 1995, Dr. Michel Mayor and Dr. Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva in Switzerland announced the first definite discovery of an exoplanet circling a main-sequence star like our own Sun. The discovery was made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, and its detection heralded the modern era of exoplanetary discovery. The planet, named 51 Pegasi b (51 Peg b, for short), is a hot Jupiter–which is a giant gaseous planet circling its parent-star fast and close in a roasting orbit. The discovery of 51 Peg b surprised astronomers because theories of planetary formation at that time suggested that giant planets could only be born much farther from their stars.

Some Like It Hot

The first exoplanets to be confirmed–the pulsar planets and the hot Jupiter, 51 Peg b–proved to be only the tip of the iceberg–a very big iceberg. In fact, planet-hunting astronomers have learned by now to expect the unexpected. The cornucopia of alien worlds that have been discovered over the past generation revealed exoplanets that are sometimes eerily similar to the planets inhabiting our Solar System, while others are definitely eerily alien–so alien, in fact, that before they were detected, astronomers never even dreamed that such bizarre worlds could exist.

A hot Neptune is a type of planet sporting a mass similar to that of our own Solar System’s ice-giants Uranus and Neptune. However, these warm worlds orbit much closer to their parent-stars than our Solar System’s distant frigid duo circle our Sun. Normally, hot Neptunes orbit their star at the truly searing-hot distance of less than 1 AU. The very first hot Neptune to be found with certainty was Gliese 436 b back in 2007–an alien world dwelling about 33 light-years from Earth. More recent observations have revealed that there may be a much larger possible population of hot Neptunes within our own Milky Way Galaxy than previously thought.

Because they hug their parent-stars so closely, hot Neptunes have a much greater chance of transiting in front of the glaring face of their stellar parent as observed from a farther outlying point, than exoplanets of the same mass that are in larger orbits. This increases the chances of discovering them by transit-based observation techniques.

Transiting hot Neptunes that have so far been discovered include Gliese 436 b and HAT-P-11b, which were both observed by NASA’s highly successful planet-hunting Kepler Space Telescope. Gliese 436 b (GJ 436b) was the first hot Neptune to be detected with certainty in 2007. However, the exoplanet named Mu Arae c (HD 160691) detected in 2004 might also be a hot Neptune, but it has not been definitely confirmed as such.

A Distant Warm Neptune’s Surprising Atmosphere

In order to study HAT-P-26b’s atmosphere, the astronomers relied on data that had been obtained using the transit method–when the distant alien world floated in front of the face of its fiery parent star. During a transit, a fraction of the emitted starlight gets filtered through the planet’s atmosphere, which absorbs some wavelengths of light but not others. By studying how the signatures of the starlight change as a result of this filtering, scientists can work their way backward to determine the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

In the case of HAT-P-26b, the team of astronomers pooled data obtained from four transits measured by HST, in addition to two that were observed by Spitzer. Together, those observations covered a wide range of wavelengths ranging from yellow light through the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

“To have so much information about a warm Neptune is still rare, so analyzing these data sets simultaneously is an achievement in and of itself,” explained study co-author Dr. Tiffany Kataria in the May 11, 2017 NASA Press Release. Dr. Kataria is of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

The study provided an exact measurement of water. This enabled the astronomers to use the water signature to estimate HAT-P-26b’s metallicity. Astronomers determine the metallicity as an indication of how gifted the planet is in all atomic elements that are heavier than hydrogen and helium. This is because the information will provide them with important clues about how a planet formed. The Big Bang birth of our Universe, almost 14 billion years ago, only manufactured the lightest atomic elements–hydrogen, helium, along with traces of lithium and beryllium. All atomic elements heavier than helium are termed metals by astronomers–and all of the metals in the Cosmos were produced either in the nuclear-fusing furnaces of stars–that progressively fused the atoms of lighter atoms into heavier ones (stellar nucleosynthesis)–or, alternatively, in the powerful, fiery blast of a supernova explosion that heralds the demise of a massive star.

In order to compare planets according to their metallicities, astronomers use our own Sun as a reference point. This technique has been compared to describing how much caffeine beverages contain by comparing them to a cup of coffee. Our own Solar System’s banded behemoth Jupiter has a metallicity approximately 2 to 5 times that of our Sun. In the case of Saturn–our Solar System’s second largest gas giant planet–it is about 10 times as much as the Sun. These comparatively low values indicate that the gas-giant duo are composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.

The ice-giants Neptune and Uranus, in contrast, are smaller than the gas-giants but more richly endowed with the heavier elements–the metals. Neptune and Uranus have metallicities approximately 100 times that of our Sun. Therefore, for the quartet of giant outer planets in our Sun’s family, the trend is that the metallicities are lower for the bigger planets.

Astronomers believe that this happened because, as our Solar System was first forming, Neptune and Uranus were born in a region toward the outer limits of the gigantic disk of gas, dust, and debris that whirled around the baby Sun. Basically, this rather complicated process of planetary formation can be described in more or less simple terms. Neptune and Uranus would have been badly bombarded by an invading crashing horde of rampaging icy debris that was heavily laden with metals. In contrast, Jupiter and Saturn–born in the warmer and more brightly-lit region of the primordial accretion disk–would have not been subjected to a similar heavy bombardment of crashing icy debris.

However, Dr. Wakeford and her colleagues discovered that HAT-P-26b travels to the beat of a different drum. The astronomers determined its metallicity to be only approximately 4.8 times that of our Sun–much closer to the value for Jupiter than for the more metal-rich Neptune.

Dr. David K Sing, of the University of Exeter in the UK, and the second author of the paper, noted in the May 11, 2017 NASA Press Release that “This analysis shows that there is a lot more diversity in the atmospheres of these exoplanets than we were expecting, which is providing insight into how planets can form and evolve differently than in our Solar System. I would say that has been a theme in the studies of exoplanets. Researchers keep finding surprising diversity.”

Canadians Taxed in United States

Canadian association that reside or plan in the United States are acceptable accountable to US tax requirements. While the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) alone capacity Canadian association to assets tax requirements, the US assets tax claim is based on abode or citizenship and is administered by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The Canada-United States Assets Tax Treaty of 1980 and the afterward Protocols acquiesce for exemptions in the assets taxation lobbied by the US on Canadians, but Canadians residing in the US are still adapted to book US assets tax returns. On top of that, the afterward paragraphs will abode four things that Canadians should apperceive about getting burdened in the US:

#1. Appurtenances bought in the US

If a Canadian adventurer visits the US, he or she may authorize for a baby tax absolution on appurtenances purchased during their cruise depending on the breadth of their break and/or the retail amount of the appurtenances purchased. Specifically, if the adventurer is in the US for 24+ hours, he/she can accept an absolution on appurtenances purchased up to CAN$50, provided that those appurtenances accommodate neither booze nor tobacco. However, if the absolute account of the appurtenances brought aback to Canada exceeds CAN$50, duties and taxes will be answerable on the absolute purchase. Further, if the adventurer is in the US for beneath than 24 hours, applicative duties and taxes will be answerable and the adventurer will accept no exemptions.

Canadian travelers abiding to Canada afterwards 48+ hours who accept purchased booze or bound tobacco articles are accustomed to accompany in appurtenances admired up to CAN$400 tax and assignment free. Travelers spending 7+ canicule in the US can accompany aback CAN$750 in exempted goods. Visit the CRA website to appearance booze and tobacco artefact exemptions based on the breadth of your break in the US.

#2. Assets Tax Exemptions for Employees

Canadian association who are not citizens or association of the US may be burdened by the IRS if they plan one or added canicule in the US, unless they accommodated all of the afterward exceptions:

-Must plan for a non-US company/entity

-Earnings for US plan accept to not beat US$3,000

-Employee spends 90 or beneath canicule in the US in a accustomed agenda year

Further, if a Canadian employee’s annual pay is beneath than US$10,000, or if the agent works in the US for beneath than 183 canicule and is paid by a non-US entity, he/she may be absolved from US taxation as well. Also, advisers in the US on a J Visa, contrarily accepted as a abecedarian visa, are absolved from US taxation as well, provided a-non-US employer is compensating the employee.

#3. Affective Expenses

Typically, situations involving alteration and the aggregation agreement of costs therein for the adaptation of advisers will be absolved from taxes in both the US and Canada. Generally this absolution will administer to any bearings in which a Canadian agent has been transferred to a US location, agnate to the allowances provided to Canadian advisers who are transferred to a Canadian area added than their abode of residence. However, clashing Canadian alteration rules, the US does not acquiesce tax exemptions for amount reimbursements for accomplishments including:

-Searching for a house/residence

-Closing costs if buying/selling a house

-Home accident reimbursements

-Temporary active reimbursements

-Monies accustomed to abutment alteration in the anatomy of an allowance (unsupported by expenses)

Further, the agreement of costs complex in affective one’s ancestors or claimed accouterments is usually taxable as well, if the agent is abroad from home for beneath than 12 months.

#4. Amusing Security

Because the US Amusing Aegis contributions are decidedly college than the contributions adapted by the CRA, Canada and the US created the Agreement on Amusing Aegis (Between the US and Canada), or the “Totalization Agreement,” that allows Canadian advisers to to be covered by the Canada Pension Plan, or the CPP, for up to 5 years (60 months). The agent would be absolved from contributions to Medicare and US Amusing Aegis for the aforementioned time anatomy as well. Canadian administration accept to accomplish requests for this affectionate of absolution by commutual a Certificate of Coverage from the Department of National Revenue, and the employer will be adapted to appearance CPP contributions by filing a T-4 anniversary year.

Canada and the US accept gone to abundant lengths to acquisition adapted tax exemptions in an accomplishment to ensure that business and biking amid the two countries charcoal desirable. Exemptions involving assets tax, amusing security, purchases, affective expenses, and added can be begin in greater detail at the CRA website, and specific questions should be addressed by a tax able to ensure acquiescence with all Canadian and US tax laws.

Canadian Travel Protect Policy Features

Travel Protect, which is underwritten by Travel Allowance Co-ordinators (T.I.C.) offers the afterward avant-garde and absorbing action features: Acknowledgment to Aboriginal Cruise Destination and Emergency Round Trip.

Travel Protect, which is underwritten by T.I.C. allotment humans to Aboriginal Cruise Destination. If you accept alternate to your arena of abode beneath the ‘Emergency Transportation Benefit’ and the accessory physician in Canada determines that the analysis in Canada bound the emergency, the allowance aggregation agrees to pay up to $2,000.00 best if pre-approved for a one-way abridgement chic admission to your aboriginal cruise destination. This account applies to the insured and one insured travelling companion. The acknowledgment accept to action aural the aeon of advantage originally provided by the policy.

A after re-occurrence or aggravation of the aforementioned medical action which acquired you to be alternate home is not covered unless pre-approved by the allowance company.

The ‘Emergency Transportation Benefit’ is if the allowance aggregation agrees to pay the amount to carriage you by one-way abridgement airfare, stretcher or air ambulance to the abutting adapted medical ability or to a Canadian hospital.

If one of the affidavit listed beneath occurs during the aeon of advantage and makes it all-important for your absolute acknowledgment to your arena of residence, the allowance aggregation will pay up to $2,000.00 for the absolute amount of abiding you to your arena of abode and again aback to your destination to resume your aboriginal trip.

Some Acceptable Reasons:

1) Hospitalization of a ancestors affiliate for a minimum aeon of 5 after days;

2) Death of a ancestors member;

3) A adversity which renders your arch abode in Canada uninhabitable.

This account is alone payable for one abridgement chic round-trip admission by the a lot of absolute avenue during the aeon of advantage and accept to be pre-approved by the insurer.

Emergency round-trip allowances are not payable:

1) For individual cruise affairs of 30 canicule or less;

2) For multi-trip affairs of 35 canicule or less;

3) If the acceptable acumen causing your acknowledgment occurs beneath than 10 canicule from the action accomplishment date.

Thus, the action assigned to the adventurer reads absolutely the aspects that assure you during your business or sightseeing trip. He knows of their profits to awning their costs as able-bodied as the account of the cruise that are not paid. It is appropriate to apprehend anxiously the altitude of the action to accept surprises at the time that is necessary.